Chalazions are due to obstruction and inflammation of small glands in the eyelids called membomian glands. They normally secrete a thick, fatty fluid called sebum. When this leaks into the surrounding tissue it causes a reaction that causes the chalazion. Treatment may include warm compresses with gentle massage and antibiotics. Some chalazions may require drainage or steroid injections.
A choroidal nevus is a lesion that develops inside the eye,similar to a freckle on the skin. It often appears as a dark gray-brown lesion that does not gradually interfere with vision. These lesions are not usually harmful, and are typically non-progressive. Treatment for choroidal nevi involves a dilated retinal exam, retinal photographs and a follow up visit looking for suspicious nevi. Suspicious choroidal nevi that show growth, become thicker, are associated with visual symptoms, change color, or have fluid buildup have a 10% chance of progressing to malignant melanoma.
Conjunctivitis, more commonly known as pink eye, is an inflammation of the conjunctivae, the membrane that lines the eyelid and eyeball. The inflammation affects the blood vessels and gives the eye a pink or red appearance. Conjunctivitis can be 1: infectious caused by bacteria, virus and others, or 2: non-infectious, such as allergic, toxic, contact lens-related and others. Symptoms of pink eye include redness or itchiness in one or both eyes, along with discharge and excess tearing.
Treatment for pink eye depends on the cause. Your doctor may prescribe antibiotic eye drops or recommend over-the-counter drugs.
Fuchs’ Corneal dystrophy
Fuchs’ dystrophy is a disease that causes the cells in the inner layer of the cornea to deteriorate, leading to distorted vision and corneal swelling. Most commonly, there is no known inheritance. The dystrophy usually starts in a patient’s 50s or 60s, and can cause blurry vision and eye pain. Symptoms may be worse in the morning. Treatment includes salt solutions to decrease the corneal swelling, soft bandage lenses, or in advanced cases, corneal transplant surgery.
Keratoconus is a progressive eye disease in which the normally round cornea thins and begins to bulge into a cone-like shape. The cornea is the clear, central part of the surface of the eye. In patients with keratoconus, the cone-shaped cornea deflects light and causes distorted vision. Changes in the shape of the cornea occur gradually, usually over several years. Patients with keratoconus often experience blurred and distorted vision, nearsightedness, and a glaring sensitivity to light. Keratoconus can often be treated with visual aids, INTACS or collagen cross-linking.
Pinguecula are yellow lesions that can form on the white of the eye as a result of long-term sun exposure, most commonly appearing in older patients. Most cases of pinguecula do not cause any symptoms, although patients may experience irritation in the eye. Treatments such as lubricating eye drops and adequate sun protection can often help relieve these symptoms, while severe cases may require surgical removal.
Strabismus, or crossed eyes, is the term for when a person cannot align both eyes on an object at the same time. The condition occurs in about 5% of children, and many adults suffer from it as well. Strabismus can be congenital or acquired from eye injury, diabetes, stroke and other conditions. Strabismus may manifest at first as double vision. For children, early treatment is best, preferably before the age of six. Older patients can be helped as well; it’s never too late to seek treatment. Strabismus treatment often includes prescribing glasses and exercising the eye muscles.
A subconjunctival hemorrhage refers to a broken blood vessel within the conjunctiva, causing the escaped blood to become trapped under the surface of the eye. This can occur after a strong sneeze or cough and does not require an injury to the eye. Although it may appear unsightly, this condition is not usually harmful and will go away on its own within two weeks. You may use eye drops to soothe the eye, but no real treatment is needed.